Privacy in hospital teenage pregnancy essay introduction an umbrella condition or state consisting of the sum total of five interrelated dimensions: It was also revealed that girls, in comparison with boys, stand closer to each other [ romanesque and gothic architecture essay ].
The data was gathered in Another part of studies regarding personal space include those concentrating on specific environments. Now the questions leadership essay questions and answers And how do they distinguish one from the other?
On the other hand, individualism has been criticized for alienating people literature review on personal space each other, causing loneliness, egoism, and proud. Content analysis research paper pdf children, this causes a much bigger problem as they have less compatibility with the environment, and less ability to analyze the problems.
Those in favor of individualism consider it as the basis of liberalism, democracy, free will, and economical motivation, and upload essay checker plagiarism protective factor against cruelty. They show willingness against avoidance, and intimacy against abandonment. Another remarkable research in this case has been done by Devlin and Blumberg, studying the views of 54 boys and 46 girls, aged between 12 to 14, about physical designing and visual characteristics of hospitals.
This can be due to the fact that individualistic people consider themselves responsible for their own relations and happiness, whereas in collectivist cultures people consider accepting norms as the most important value, and the individual or interpersonal happiness as the secondary value 10 ].
With regard to the population pyramid of Iran and the fact that a great number of children and adolescents are hospitalized before beings adults, and that the existing strategies in other countries, due to cultural differences, cannot be adopted exactly to be used in our country, it seems that examining the effects of hospital stay on children and adolescents, what is a research paper introduction also optimizing the present strategies is absolutely necessary.
Regarding the age, it was revealed that children and adolescents have nearly similar preferences. Yet, the personal and social distance clearly do exist. He maintains that an incorrect understanding of space can be due to two main factors: This questionnaire were developed in two Iranian and Deutsch language formats for sick children with 2 major questions about barriers and type of them curtain, wall or nothing and demographic characteristics of the children gender, age group, nationality.
Literature review on personal space runaway distance and the critical distance, except for a few cases, have been deleted from human reactions.
Regarding their sexual characteristics, adolescents are shy, and do not like the short clothes of the hospital which are open in the back, and aggravate these negative feelings. In a study, regarding the effect of class organization on personal space preferences of students, Brody and Zimmerman concluded that the class organization literature review on personal space an effect on personal space preferences of students, and that children in open- area classes prefer closer personal space than traditional classes [ 15 ].
Results The results show that Iranian children, contrary to German children, prefer a space without any barrier, and that girls prefer closed spaces more than boys. It is also a demographic research. Abstract Background Patients in the therapeutic environment worry about their health and therapy; they are away from their usual social activities, and these entire put a great deal of stress on them, and delay their therapy by affecting their immune literature review on personal space and reducing their spiritual power.
Industrialized nations such as United States, England,… are regarded as individualistic while developing regions such as Africa, Chine, typically have traditional values and how to write cover letter in job application collectivistic [ 12 ].
The results indicate that there are fundamental differences among cultures regarding the application of personal distance, the distances they keep, the form of the territory, and their interpretations of intimate behavior. Some examples of intimate behaviors are smiling, touching, eye contact, close distance, and voice changes.
Another factor in determining the intimacy and distance between individuals is interpersonal behavior. This space is not necessarily round in shape, and does not expand in the same extend from all its dimensions [ 3 ]. In this study, some differences were found between the preferences of 3 and years old children with regard literature review on personal space personal space.
Another research indicates that children naturally tend to establish social relations, and that forming peer groups, especially for adolescents in the hospital, is of utmost importance [ 20 ].
The results show that the personal distance of how to write a killer act essay pdf from their family members is smaller than the distance from doctors and nurses, and that the age and gender variables normalize this relationship [ 19 ].
The sample size estimated based on Cochran formulae with accepting error magnitude of 0. Then, the dependent variable at two levels, with barrier and without barrier, collapsed, and the effect of independent variables on it were examined using Logistic Regression. Here, the preferred personal space in interacting with nurses, doctors, and family members and the effect of gender and age on personal space preferences has been studied.
literature review on personal space
Intimate behaviors transfer sociability, closeness, and readiness for communication. Gre awa analytical writing issue essay sample solution Patients in the therapeutic environment worry about their health and therapy; they are away from their usual social activities, and all of these put a great deal of stress on them, and delay their therapy by affecting their immune system and reducing their spiritual power [ 1 ].
Methodology The present study is a descriptive- analytic non- experimental research regarding the method of data gathering.
In this study, some differences were found between the preferences of 3 and years old children with regard to personal space. The sample under study included girls
Collections specialist cover letter sample questionnaire was easy enough to understand and to answer by children especially for sick children because of their special conditions. First, to examine the exact kind of the barrier wall or curtain or without a barrier, Logit Log Linear Analysis was carried out.
It is interesting that Contact Cultures are usually in countries with warm weather e. How to write cover letter in job application sample essay on personal code of ethics was limiting the number of questions and the second one was designing questionnaire graphically. How many different distances between humans exist?
Results In order to investigate the effect of gender, nationality, and age group, as independent variables, on the space preferences during hospital stay, the dependent variable was studied from two approaches.
The results of the Logit Log Linear Analysis, to investigate the corresponding relationship between the independent variables of gender, nationality, and age group, and space preferences wall, curtain, or without a barrier as indicated in Table 1 a model with an appropriate Goodness of fit. This is specifically important for adolescents considering their specific characteristics regarding their age.
Hydger has classified these distances as runaway distance, critical distance, personal distance, and social distance. Finally, remarkable differences were found among groups with regard to their desired kind of barrier.
Patients and Methods 3.
Interpersonal Behavior: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in sandra cisneros only daughter essay analysis medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The face validity and content validity of the questionnaire used in the interview were confirmed by child psychology experts before its implementation.
Individualism One of the fundamental cultural differences is the degree of individualism as opposed to collectivism. People in Less Contact Cultures stand within a distance from each other and occasionally touch each other. Gafman proposed another definition for personal space, i.
The geographical differences include energy level, climate, and body metabolism. Even some of them liked to bring their own pajamas to the hospital, which all indicate that adolescents tend to have privacy and control, and a sense of individuality in their peer group. In the other hand cognitive and spatial control is highest when the patient and family are in space of their own, undisturbed by outsiders, and where persons unfamiliar to the patient and family collections specialist cover letter sample not share the same zone of personal first muse essay [ 18 ].
Barriers could be curtains or walls. People in individualistic cultures smile more than people in collectivist cultures.
As privacy and personal control lighting levels, spatial props, view, and so on believed to influence sandra cisneros only daughter essay analysis outcomes [ 16 ]. Considering the limitation of doing the research in all cities of Iran and Germany, the research population is delimited to the children hospitals in Tehran and Stuttgart.
The study indicated that in hospitals, the sense of personal control is in danger, but through designing we can help patients to specify their personal boarders, and feel that they a private space. The sample under study included girls how to write cover letter in job application Western culture is an individualistic culture, whereas eastern culture emphasizes homogeneity and relationship among people and between upload essay checker plagiarism and nature.
Measurement Instrument: In this regard, a number of inter-cultural studies have been amazon problem solving mug out on the psychological and social characteristics of people in different cultures and countries, some of which have specifically concentrated on the factors affecting personal distance.
Another part of the studies has concentrated on the privacy in therapeutic environment, the debate how to write a killer act essay pdf the role of privacy in patient well-being and particularly in the context of the architecture of the patient room, has a long history within the history of the hospital [ 16 ].
Last preference separating the beds with curtains was not generally favored by the respondents, which is in line with the results of similar studies in For example, a study on the university and high school environments reveals the effect of gender and age on personal space in these environments. The NAWCH study, done inconcludes that it is absolutely crucial to pay attention to the social needs of adolescent patients, emphasizing the appropriate design literature review on personal space the hospital to promote social interactions of children and adolescents.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This study reveals some differences personal space preferences of hospitalized adults.
Tennis and Dabbs indicated how to write cover letter in job application university students as compared to high school students tend to have more personal space [ 13 ]. Other studies show that males prefer larger personal space than females. Conclusions Preferring a space without a barrier, which provides more chances for social interaction among individuals, shows that the majority of children prefer to have social interactions and contacts in the hospital that is in line with the results of similar studies.
Studies show that literature review on leadership essay questions and answers space sense extremely changes in adolescents from the age of 11 to Moreover, considering the purpose of the research, this study is an applied research.
One is irritated by the collections specialist cover letter sample of anybody in this particular space. Among other effective indices we can refer to the perception of space, interpersonal behavior, and the extend of individualism: Dolphin has studied the use of space, as another aspect of human interaction, in different cultures.
Humans also have similar ways to keep distance from others. People in individualistic cultures isolate from each other whereas in collectivist cultures, they have relations with each other, and as a result their work, entertainment, life, and rest all happen at a closer distance from each other.
The sample was selected from different wards of children hospitals except infectious wards. In his classification of spaces, personal space distance occurs in the second part, after the intimacy distance. One of the most important indices of determining the distance between individuals is their cultural characteristic [ 5 ].
Geden and Begeman who studied the personal space preferences during hospital stay. This cultural dimension determines the way people live with each other alone, in a family, or in a tribetheir values, and their relations.